General and Economic Information

French and Creole are the language used, in this island of 352,205 inhabitants[1].

Martinique has the status of a territorial community of the French Republic. The regional authority, Collectivité Territoriale de Martinique, is headed by the president of the Executive Council. The French government is represented by the prefect.

The monetary unit used on the island is the euro. The telephone prefix is +596 and the departmental code is 972.

GDP in Martinique amounted to almost EUR 9 million in 2020, or EUR 24,728 per inhabitant, the highest figure among French overseas regions, but lower than the French national average.

The economy is essentially based on the service sector.

[1] Provisional data Eurostat 2022



Geopolitical and Territorial Description

Located in the heart of the Lesser Antilles, Martinique is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean in the east and the Caribbean in the west. Due to this exceptional location, the island is open to regular trade with neighbouring countries and continents.

Martinique covers an area of 1,128 km², 80 km long at its widest point and 39 km at its narrowest point. Montagne Pelée, currently an active volcano, is the highest point (1,397 m) on the island in the north, where dense forests, rivers and waterfalls abound.

In the central area, the Lamentin plain, where the Aimé Césaire international airport is located, makes the transition to the gentler and older relief of the South. The southern coast is home to numerous charming bays and coves. The petrified plain in the far south is a geological rarity.

The relatively warm and humid climate is marked by two seasons: Carême (dry season) and Hivernage (rainy season from June/July to October/November). The temperature ranges between 25°C and 30°C all year round.

This tropical island is full of sumptuous tropical forests, savannahs and flowers, including an exceptional marine ecosystem, mainly characterised by mangroves, algae meadows and coral reefs. Its richness is unique due to the endemism of many species and the rare but threatened habitat heritage where they live. All this makes the island an extraordinary exotic garden that became UNESCO “Biosphere Reserve” in 2021, covering the whole land and sea territory.


Territorial Community Status of Martinique

Created in 2015, the Territorial Community of Martinique integrates the powers of the former General and Regional Councils, with the addition of new powers.

Its decision-making power is shared by both the Executive Council, composed of eight members and led by a President, and a Territorial Assembly, known as the “Martinique Assembly”, also led by a President. The latter comprises the fifty-one elected territorial representatives of Martinique.

This local authority is responsible for managing the policies applicable to Martinique. It is in close contact with the three Public Institutions for Intermunicipal Cooperation (CACEM, CAP Nord and CAESM[1]), as well as with the thirty-four municipalities of Martinique.

The territory of Martinique is also divided into four administrative districts (from which come the four Martinique members of the French National Assembly and the two Martinique members of the French Senate). The capital of the island is Fort de France, since the eruption of Montagne Pelée, which devastated the former capital, Saint-Pierre, in 1902.

[1] Communauté d’Agglomération du Centre de la Martinique, Communauté d’Agglomération du pays Nord Martinique and Communauté d’Agglomération de l’Espace Sud Martinique.


Relations with partners in the Wider Caribbean Region

Martinique is at once French, European and deeply Caribbean. This is why its integration into its geographical environment is a priority. It is an associate member of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) and the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), a regional commission of the United Nations.



Traditionally, the agricultural and agri-food sectors have been export-oriented (mainly to Europe), especially bananas and sugar cane for rum production. The goal: food sovereignty.

In Martinique, the banana sector accounts for 60% of agricultural workers, currently cultivating 5,000 hectares. As far as rum production is concerned, Martinique is famous for being the origin land of some of the best agricultural rums in the world, which have won awards at several competitions, such as the Spirits Selection in Brussels, and have been protected by a PDO[1] since 1996. Other more marginal tropical fruit crops such as pineapple, guava and mango are also grown.

Martinique is now seeking to complete its agricultural and food development by supporting the development of a local food supply based on its rich biodiversity and its ancestral agricultural techniques for crops and raising livestock.


Martinique promotes the development of its agriculture by adopting various measures to support farmers and diversification, in order to support, innovate and enhance a highly efficient, diversified and eco-friendly local production, as well as supporting its agroecological transition.

Through the research and innovation in the field of inputs, a better integration in its geographical basin, the development of local distribution channels and the search for a new financial fund dynamic, Martinique is at an advanced stage regarding its policy on food autonomy and adaptation.

[1] Controlled Designation of Origin.



The heritage of Martinique in terms of craftsmanship, internationally renowned literature, traditional and modern music and dances, as well as Art de vivre and gastronomy, make it a land of tradition and culture.

It is worth mentioning, among others, about a hundred historical monuments on the island and the city of Saint-Pierre, classified as the “City of Art and History”, destroyed by the eruption of Montagne Pelée on 8 May 1902.

Several writers have made this land known throughout the world. Some of these include Aimé Césaire, Suzanne Dracius, René Maran, Frantz Fanon, Edouard Glissant and Joseph Zobel.

Martinique is also a destination for maritime tourism lovers. It offers the possibility of trips to the islets or the white seabed. The island also attracts an interest in water sports such as flyboarding, wakeboarding or even yole (traditional sailing).



Martinique has an exceptional biodiversity; it is also one of the hotspots of the planet and thus a real priority in terms of management and protection. There are highly diverse ecosystems of great biological and ecological value.

Aware of these advantages, researchers in this island are working to identify, study and protect biological resources in order to develop high added-value sectors.

To achieve these objectives, regional authorities have decided to lead an exhaustive exploration of biodiversity and biological resources by creating the Centre Territorial d’Exploration de la Biodiversité Martiniquaise. The objective is to enhance biological resources and develop research on biological sciences in Martinique.

Work is therefore underway to structure and centralise research and analysis of the vast potential of the island concerning pharmacopoeia and cosmetology. This strategy will be carried out in coherence and collaboration with all institutions already existing in Martinique, in order to improve the level of local scientific research.


Renewable Energies

Martinique geographical location provides a significant renewable energy potential (solar, photovoltaic, hydro, geothermal, wind, biomass, etc.).

The renewable energy share in total energy consumption was 25% in 2022. In view of this situation, technological solutions are being studied and developed throughout the region.

Currently, reference can be made to the Fort-de-France household waste treatment and recovery plant and the biomass energy plant, which supplies around 15% of electricity needs in Martinique.

The island also has intermittent renewables, including a growing solar and wind farm, which currently provides around 10% of green power in the island.

Martinique could also benefit from an untapped potential such as the geothermal energy or holographic technologies, which are areas of particular focus.

The aim of Martinique is to achieve energy autonomy by 2030.